Penguins were designed to fly underwater. To help birds fly light, most birds have hollow bones that are filled with air. Instead, the Penguins have adapted to solid bones. Because solid bones decrease buoyancy, which is the tendency to float, this allows them to swim.
A group of penguins is known as a raft in the water, but a group on land is known as a waddle. Other names for a group of penguins include rookery, colony, and huddle.
Most penguin species wear a black and white "tuxedo", which is a clever camouflage known as countershading. Their black backs help them blend in with the ocean's darkness from predators looking from above. Prey and predators can see their white belly when they are below them. This helps them blend in with the bright ocean surface.
For many reasons, penguins might huddle together. These birds are able to protect themselves against predators by displaying this behavior. In frigid habitats, huddling helps penguins retain warmth.
The thick feathers of a penguin are not the only way it stays warm. Waterproof oil is produced by a gland at the base of the tail. The oil is applied to the feathers by penguins, who spend hours each day doing this task.
Penguins can be found in many habitats and locations. They can be found in Antarctica, Antarctic islands, and the Galapagos Islands off Ecuador, South Africa and New Zealand.
Contrary to popular holiday cartoons, penguins will never be seen with polar bears in the wild. This is because penguins are found south of the Equator, while Polar Bears reside north of the Equator in Arctic.
Penguin feet can walk for long distances because of their adaptations. Penguins of certain species can travel up to 60 miles on sea ice to reach their breeding grounds. The feet of penguins are specially adapted to aid in swimming. Their feet act as rudders and can be angled to control their direction.
In order to win female penguins, many male penguins give rocks to them. These rocks are used by the ladies to make a nest.
Some experts claim that the penguin is the world's most streamlined animal. The body of a penguin is tapered at the ends. It has a large head and neck, and an elongated body. Penguins can swim quickly because of this streamlined design.